Adam Kapler, DO
Meet Our New Physician

Adam Kapler, DO

Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc is pleased to welcome neurologist Adam M. Kapler, DO, to our team. Dr. Kapler will start seeing patients July 24th 2017. Dr. Kapler recently finished a Neurology residency at Loyola University Medical Center in Chicago. He received his medical degree from Des Moines University in Iowa. Adam Kapler, DO, provides treatment for general neurological conditions, with special interest in stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. He is currently accepting new patients at our Norwalk and Sandusky locations. He moves here with his wife and daughter, and when not spending time with them he enjoys working on the house, in the yard, or in the garage.


Brendan Bauer, MDBellevue, OH, October 19, 2012 -- Among the select few physicians honored with the prestigious Patients' Choice Award this year is Dr. Brendan Bauer. In fact, of the nation's 870,000 active physicians and dentists, just five percent consistently received top scores from their patients on sites like Vitals (, qualifying them for this honor in 2012.

Millions of patients go online each year to rate their doctors on various components of care, including accuracy of their diagnosis, the amount of time they spent with the doctor, and the doctor's bedside manner and follow-up care. Patients' Choice reviews these rankings and other quality measures to compile its yearly list of award winners.

Brendan Bauer, MD at Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. commented on the recognition: "I'm so honored to receive an award that’s based on how my patients view the quality of care I provide. I strive each day to exceed my patients’ expectations, and I’m grateful that they’ve recognized my efforts.”   This is the third year in a row that Dr. Bauer has been honored with the Patients' Choice Award and he is also the recipient of the Compassionate Doctor Award for the last two years.

Dr. Brendan Bauer and Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. has provided excellence in neurological care and pain management for over 30 years and offers a wide array of services. All physicians have achieved Board Certification in Neurology through the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. In addition, several of the physicians are specialized and achieved additional credentials including Certifications in Electrodiagnostic Medicine, Vascular Neurology and Electrophysiology and Somatosensory Testing.

Patients' Choice AwardFor more information on this Patients' Choice Award winner, please visit Dr. Brendan Bauer's profile on

For more information on Dr. Brendan Bauer, located in Bellevue, OH, please call 419-483-2403.

Patients' Choice provides in-depth information on doctors in your area who have been recognized and awarded for outstanding patient care and expertise. The Patients' Choice Award is the honor roll of physicians who have received the highest ratings by their patients.

Patient Choice and Compassionate Doctor awardsJuly 2012

Brendan Bauer, M.D. has once again received both the Patients’ Choice Award and Compassionate Doctor Recognition by The Patients’ Choice Award is a national program in which patients nominate their doctors through an online physician ratings service.

The Compassionate Doctor Recognition is the part of the Patients’ Choice Award that evaluates bedside manner, approach to patient visits, follow-up care and availability for appointments. Fewer than 3% of the country’s 720,000 active physicians have been recognized with the Patients’ Choice Award. The 2011 award winners were announced in early 2012.

Dr. Bauer has received the Compassionate Doctor Recognition for the last two years and he has received the Patients’ Choice award two years in a row.

Dr. Brendan Bauer prescribes T-PA for stroke victim at Firelands Regional Medical Center. The patient fully recovered with no lasting side effects or need for any therapies. T-PA is a medication used to dissolve blood clots and is sometimes used in patients have an ischemic stroke which occurs when blood vessels become blocked or clogged cutting off blood flow to the brain cells.

Read the full article here

Mar 14 2012

Contact: Tamara Sloper (

Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Receives MRI Accreditation by the IAC

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an extremely useful diagnostic imaging tool, performed an estimated 28 million times annually in the United States, enabling interpreting physicians to visualize the structure and function of the body. As it provides detailed images of the soft tissue of the body, magnetic resonance is especially helpful in diagnosing issues related to neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and oncological (cancer-related) conditions.

Early detection of life threatening conditions and other diseases is possible through the use of MRI procedures performed within hospitals, outpatient centers and physicians’ offices. While these tests are helpful, there are many facets that contribute to an accurate diagnosis based on MRI testing. The skill of the MRI technologist performing the examination, the type of equipment used, the background and knowledge of the interpreting physician and quality assurance measures are each critical to quality patient testing.

Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. Magnetic Resonance Imaging located in Fremont, OH has been granted a three year term of accreditation in MRI in the areas of MRA, Body MRI, Musculoskeletal MRI, and Neurological MRI by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC).

Accreditation by the IAC means that Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. Magnetic Resonance Imaging has undergone a thorough review of its operational and technical components by a panel of experts. The IAC grants accreditation only to those facilities that are found to be providing quality patient care, in compliance with national standards through a comprehensive application process including detailed case study review.

IAC accreditation is a “seal of approval” that patients can rely on as an indication that the facility has been carefully critiqued on all aspects of its operations considered relevant by medical experts in the field of MRI. When scheduled for a MRI procedure, patients are encouraged to inquire as to the accreditation status of the facility where their examination will be performed and can learn more by visiting

IAC accreditation is widely respected within the medical community, as illustrated by the support of the national medical societies related to MRI, which include physicians, technologists and physicists. MRI accreditation is required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and in some cases by private insurers. However, patients should remain vigilant in making sure that their MRI procedures are performed within accredited facilities, because for some facilities it remains a voluntary process.

272 Benedict Avenue, Norwalk, OH 44857

From Johnna Young, Marketing/Public Relations Specialist …… (419) 663-1975  x 6630


May 12, 2009

On average, a stroke occurs every 40 seconds and is the No. 3 cause of death in the United States. That’s the bad news. The good news is that stroke is preventable.

“Everyone should know the risk factors and warning signs of stroke,” said Dr. Michael Leslie of Advanced Neurologic Associates. “If you suspect that your or someone around you is having a stroke, call 911 immediately and get to the hospital. Stroke damage can be reduced, but only if you are treated quickly.”
To learn more about stroke, join Fisher-Titus Medical Center’s health-care professionals on Tuesday, May 19 at the Fisher-Titus Learning Center at Norwalk High School, 350 Shady Lane Drive, Norwalk. Health screenings will be available from 5:30-6:30 p.m.

At 6:30, physicians from the FTMC Emergency Department and Advanced Neurologic Associates will present the latest stroke information and tell you what you need to do if you suspect you or someone around your is having a stroke.

To register or for more information, call 419-660-2828. 
FTMC is one of 26 hospitals in Ohio certified as a Primary Stroke Center by the Joint Commission.

Phone 419.483.2403 ext. 122
Fax 419.483.8418

Advanced Neurologic Associates achieves MGMA ‘Better Performer’ status
Bellevue, OH, February 5, 2009 – The Medical Group Management Association (MGMA)

Performance and Practices of Successful Medical Groups: 2008 Report Based on 2007 Data identified Advanced Neurologic Associates as a “better performer” because of superior operational performance compared with similar medical group practices nationwide.

MGMA recognizes Advanced Neurologic Associates as a national leader in Cost Management, Productivity, Capacity and staffing in their Multi-Specialty group medical practice. We strive to continually improve our patient’s experience via enhancing access, improving patient-practice interactions, and effective cost containment strategies.

 Advanced Neurologic Associates has been serving North Central Ohio since 1983. Addressing the growing and expanding community needs, Advanced Neurologic has evolved from a solo practice to a group of seven providers covering a five county area. This is the first time Advanced Neurologic Associates has been recognized a “Better Performer” by MGMA.

 “We are extremely honored to be recognized by the MGMA for our quality improvement efforts. Change is never easy, but through the hard work and dedication of our Associates, Leadership Team, and Physicians, we have changed our patient’s overall and personal experience. We look forward to addressing the remaining challenges that face not only our practice but also our regional healthcare system."

The MGMA report, a benchmarking standard among medical groups for nearly a decade, was produced using data from respondents to the MGMA Cost Survey: 2008 Reports Based on 2007 Data as well as data from a questionnaire that assessed management behaviors, practices and procedures of better performers. The report profiles medical practices that have demonstrated success in one or more areas: profitability and cost management; productivity, capacity and staffing; accounts receivable and collections; patient satisfaction; and managed care operations.

About Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc.
Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. has provided excellence in neurological care and pain management for over 30 years and offers a wide array of services. All physicians have achieved Board Certification in Neurology through the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. In addition, several of the physicians are specialized and achieved additional credentials including Certifications in Electrodiagnostic Medicine, Vascular Neurology and Electrophysiology and Somatosensory Testing.

The physicians strive to be on the cutting edge of medicine today and are currently participating in several national and international clinical research trials for various conditions. They are an integral part of the interdisciplinary team as they provide the clinical analysis and interpretation of various outcomes.

Advanced Neurologic Associates, currently maintains offices in Bellevue, Norwalk, Port Clinton, Fremont, Green Springs and Willard, Ohio. Hospital affiliations include Firelands Regional Medical Center, Magruder Hospital, Fisher-Titus Medical Center, The Bellevue Hospital, Memorial Hospital – Fremont and St. Francis - Green Springs.

About MGMA
MGMA is the premier membership association for professional administrators and leaders of medical group practices. Since 1926, MGMA has delivered networking, professional education and resources, and political advocacy for medical practice management. Today, MGMA’s 22,500 members lead 13,700 organizations nationwide in which some 275,000 physicians provide more than 40 percent of the health care services delivered in the United States.

MGMA’s mission is to continually improve the performance of medical group practice professionals and the organizations they represent. MGMA promotes the group practice model as the optimal framework for health care delivery, assisting group practices in providing efficient, safe, patient-focused and affordable care. MGMA is headquartered in Englewood, Colo., and maintains a government affairs office in Washington, D.C. Please visit

Bellevue, OH, October 08, 2008.  Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. of Bellevue, Ohio is proud to announce the election of Dr. Steven Benedict, M.D., to the office of Alumni Specialty Director, Neurology, at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Alumni Association.  Dr. Benedict will serve a four-year term through June 2012.  As a member, Dr. Benedict will be representing approximately 400 Clinic Neurology Alumni on the Alumni Board of Directors. 

The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Alumni Association endeavors to enhance relationships and enrich programs for alumni in and across all specialties and locations.  Its membership consists of MD's, DO's, and PhD's who successfully completed at least one year of an approved post-graduate medical education program under the auspices of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Department of Graduate Medical Education or a minimum of one year of an approved research fellowship. Current and former staff are also honorary members. Their Alumni are located throughout the world--in 72 foreign lands and all 50 United States and Puerto Rico.  

A stroke is a serious medical emergency. Remember: Time is brain. Damage can be reduced with treatment, but only if you are treated within three hours of the first symptoms. 

“An important component of educating the public on stroke or brain attack is the need to get emergency treatment immediately if stroke symptoms are present,” said Annette Holmes, an occupational therapist at Fisher-Titus Medical Center and one of the coordinators of FTMC’s Stroke Support Group. 

Learn more about stroke during a special educational forum at 7 p.m. Thursday, Aug. 14 in Fisher-Titus Medical Center’s Auditorium, 272 Benedict Ave., Norwalk. The forum is sponsored by FTMC Stroke Support Group and Advanced Neurologic Associates. 

During the event, neurologists from Advanced Neurologic Associates will review the signs and symptoms of a stroke and answer audience questions.             

Along with educational community programs, the stroke support group provides opportunities for stroke survivors, their caregivers, and health-care professionals to support each other by sharing experiences, challenges and accomplishments. The support group also provides stroke survivors and their caregivers with available resources to help them lead active and rewarding lives after stroke. 

The group is led by Holmes and Occupational Therapy Assistant Connie Beard. The group meets from 2-3:30 p.m. on the fourth Thursday each month and has educational discussions on a variety of topics such as diet, exercise, visual changes, community re-entry and communication. 

If you or someone you know would benefit from this support group or would like more information, call 419-660-2700, Ext. 6435. 

Fisher-Titus Medical Center is certified as a Primary Stroke Center by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Facilities (JCAHO).

Bellevue, OH, June 11, 2008:   Brendan Bauer, MD and Steven Benedict, MD recently obtained Board Certification in Vascular Neurology from the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). They are currently distinguished as two of only 225 doctors in the United States to have achieved this recognition and whose medical practices include cerebrovascular disease as an independent area of medical expertise.

Dr. Bauer directs the Stroke Teams at Fisher-Titus Medical Center Stroke Center in Norwalk, Ohio.   Both physicians are recognized locally for their contributions, treatments, and research in the subspecialty field of Vascular Neurology.  In addition to caring for stroke patients, they are actively involved in clinical research to improve patient outcomes. Their research interests include acute stroke intervention and stroke prevention.

The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Inc. (ABPN), is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to serving the public interest by promoting excellence in the practice of psychiatry and neurology through certification. The ABPN is one of the 24 boards upholding the highest quality standards as a member of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). In 2003, the ABPN created the vascular neurology certification to help identify properly trained and experienced vascular neurologists. Additionally, the certification was created to establish the field of vascular neurology as a solid sub specialization in both neurology and child neurology.

To qualify for the vascular neurology certification, doctors must complete additional formal training in vascular neurology, devote at least 25 percent of their practice to vascular neurology and successfully pass a comprehensive examination encompassing epidemiology, basic science and clinical aspects of vascular neurology including recovery, regenerative approaches and rehabilitation of stroke.

William R. Bauer, MD, Ph.D., FAAN 
Evaluating Novel, Orally Active Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

FREEDOMS II Clinical Trial Now Enrolling Patients

 Bellevue, OH  Advanced Neurologic Associates is one of 101 research sites conducting a landmark, Phase III clinical trial called FREEDOMS II, which is evaluating an investigational, orally active drug for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). William R. Bauer, MD, Ph.D., FAAN, is leading this effort locally and is currently enrolling patients into this clinical trial.

 For people with RRMS, currently available, first-line therapies (interferon b and glatiramer acetate) have partial efficacy (about 33% reduction in relapse rate and a modest effect on disability progression). These agents are biologic parenteral treatments requiring injections, which often are associated with side effects (injection site reactions, flu-like symptoms). Therefore, there is a strong medical need for a safe and effective oral treatment for RRMS.

 FREEDOMS II (FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral therapy in MS) is a Phase III, 24-month, randomized, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in approximately 1,080patients with RRMS. This clinical trial is evaluating the investigational drug FTY720, a novel, orally active, synthetic small molecule designed to decrease the rate and severity of relapse, reduce inflammatory activity, as measured by MRI, and reduce the risk of disability progression for patients with RRMS without some of the side effects commonly associated with standard, injectable therapies.

 Efficacy and safety of FTY720 in patients with MS has been evaluated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II study in patients with relapsing MS. The study demonstrated highly statistically significant effects of FTY720 to placebo on both MRI and clinical relapse-related endpoints. Eighty-six percent of patients in the FTY720 groups were relapse-free during the study compared to 66 percent in the placebo group. Relapse rate was reduced by approximately 54 percent in the FTY720 groups compared to placebo. FTY720 was generally well tolerated in the Phase II MS study CFTY720D2201 with less than 10 percent discontinuations overall at 6 months. \

 The investigational drug, FTY720, is in clinical development for MS by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

Patients who participate in the Phase III study, FREEDOM II, will benefit from 2 years of study-related care and close monitoring of their RRMS, including 5 MRI exams administered periodically throughout the study. Patients who complete the 24-month double-blind treatment phase may be eligible to enter a long-term extension of the study, during which all patients will receive FTY720.

 People eligible for participation in FREEDOMS II must meet the following criteria:

  • Have RRMS and:
    • Are not taking any medication for their RRMS, and/or
    • In your opinion would be willing to explicitly decline initiation or continuation of treatment with available, approved disease modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis, for whatever reason, after having been informed about their respective benefits and possible adverse events by the investigator.
  • Are 18-55 years of age
  • Have experienced at least 1 relapse during the last year, or 2 relapses during the last 2 years
  • Do not require the use of a wheelchair (are currently in the EDSS range of 0-5.5)

Dr. William R. Bauer is seeking study participants and can be contacted by phone at 419.483.2403 ext. 113 or by e-mail at  Dr. William R. Bauer is also available to meet in person to answer questions and to provide additional information.

FREMONT-- A local doctor is fed up with the treatment of pain patients and is taking matters into his own hands.

 William Bauer, a neurologist who specializes in pain and pain research, has spent 23 years in the Fremont area working at Memorial and Bellevue hospitals and also the North Coast Imaging Center on East State Street.

 Bauer and several other doctors in the area are working to develop a pain patient's Bill of Rights for Ohio, based on the already existing California pain laws. The law proposes five essential ideas: pain management is a right of the patient, doctors have a duty to listen and respond to patients' pain, pain relief is immune from legal liability, doctors who are unable to ensure pain relief must refer patient to another doctor who can and all doctors must be educated on pain relief. Read the entire story on The

Bellevue, OH, January 9, 2008:  Advanced Neurologic Associates, Inc. commends Dr. Brendan Bauer, MD on achieving a “Primary Stroke Center” designation at Fisher-Titus Medical Center on November 26, 2007.

 Beginning in late 2005, Dr. Brendan Bauer and Ms. Kristi Washburn began working with members of the Fisher-Titus Medical Center medical staff to identify the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations as a Primary Stroke Center.  This team put together the policies and procedures to offer our community the best possible care for stroke patients.

 On November 8, 2007 the Joint Commission conducted an on-site survey that resulted in no recommendations for improvement to the program prior to being deployed.  The end result of these efforts is improved care for our communities’ patients and demonstrates the team’s commitment to providing the best possible care to our community.

Congratulations to Dr. Brendan Bauer, Kristi Washburn and the entire Fisher-Titus Medical Center for earning this recognition.


Physician Articles


The Impact of a Web-Based Caregiver Intervention on the Reasons Stroke Survivors Use Health Care Services During the First Year Post Treatment

Victoria Steiner, Linda L. Pierce, Felicia Windnagel, Kelly Martincin, Rosalyn Pawlak, and Diane Salvador


Purpose: A Web-based education/support intervention for caregivers of stroke survivors was developed. A prospective, descriptive design was used to identify caregivers’ reported reasons for stroke survivors’ health care service use (i.e., health care provider and emergency department visits, hospital readmissions) during the fi rst year after initial treatment. Method: Caregivers were recruited in the Midwest and randomized into an experimental (Web users, n = 36) or control (non-Web users, n = 37) group. Telephone interviews were conducted with the caregivers every 2 weeks. Reported reasons were organized by group and time period in which the service occurred (i.e., Months 1–6 or 7–12; 1-year totals). Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze these data. Results: Two themes emerged: wellness- and problem-oriented reasons for health care service use. Web users reported a large percentage of visits for rehabilitations reasons, which may have subsequently contributed to the musculoskeletal issues of this group. Laboratory work and testing was considered by both groups as a primary reason for provider visits. Non-Web users reported that medication adjustment was a common reason for provider visits. They also had more emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiology or pulmonology reasons. Conclusion: This study informs professionals about the care and needs of stroke survivors and provides direction for education and supportive interactions with caregivers and survivors. Read the paper

Key words: caregivers, health services, health utilization, stroke, stroke patients



Translational Research Stimulation Award

Progress Report for 1st year (January 2008 – December 2008)

Title: MRI of Human Cortex after Limb Loss


UT Research Group: J. Wall (PI)1, W. Bauer1, N. Chiaia1, M. Dennis2, J. Kane3, R. Lane1, R. Mooney1, and X. Wang1,4; UT Departments of Neurosciences1, Radiology2, Orthopedics3, and Psychiatry4


1. Brief overview, specific aims, and long term objectives


            The University of Toledo (UT) Translational Research Stimulation Award (TRSA) program was designed to develop new translational research at UT, including generation of pilot data for seeking new extramural funding.  Our TRSA funded studies involve a translational research project aimed at doing pilot tests of cortical structural changes in humans who have lost a limb.  As stated in the timetable for our original proposal, our goal is to recruit, scan, and analyze 15 amputee and 15 age/gender matched control subjects within 1½ years of the January 2008 starting date.  The final ½ year will be used to complete the planned analyses, explore unplanned analyses that may be prompted from the results, and prepare applications for external funding.  Our studies to date follow this timetable. Read the complete paper



The Brain in Chronic CRPS Pain: Abnormal Gray-White Matter Interactions in Emotional and Autonomic Regions

Paul Y. Geha,1 Marwan N. Baliki,1 R. Norman Harden,2 William R. Bauer,6 Todd B. Parrish,3 and A. Vania Apkarian1,4,5,*
Department of Physiology
Rehabilitation Institute
Department of Radiology
Department of Anesthesia
Department of Surgery
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Department of Neuroscience, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo OH 43614-2598, USA
DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.08.022


Chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating pain condition accompanied by autonomic abnormalities. We investigated gray matter morphometry and white matter anisotropy in CRPS patients and matched controls. Patients exhibited a disrupted relationship between whitematter anisotropy and whole-brain gray matter volume; gray matter atrophy in a single cluster encompassing right insula, right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), and right nucleus accumbens; and a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the left cingulum-callosal bundle.
Reorganization of white matter connectivity in these regionswas characterized by branching pattern alterations, as well as increased (VMPFC to insula) and decreased (VMPFC to basal ganglion) connectivity. While regional atrophy differentially related to pain intensity and duration, the strength of connectivity between specific atrophied regions related to anxiety. These abnormalities encompass emotional, autonomic, and pain perception regions, implying
that they likely play a critical role in the global clinical picture of CRPS.

Click to download the full article



Longitudinal MRI evaluations of human global cortical thickness over minutes to weeks.

Xin Wang, William Bauer, Nicolas Chiaia, Michael Dennis, Mischka Gerken, Jacob Hummel, John Kane, Cynthia Kenmuir, Sadik Khuder, Richard Lane, Richard Mooney, Peter Bazeley, Vania Apkarian, John Wall

Department of Neuroscience, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614, United States.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate within-subject variability in global mean cortical thickness over test-retest intervals of minutes-weeks in five healthy adults. Within-subject measures of global mean thickness were consistent over these intervals. Test-retest assessments of absolute thickness differences and percent thickness differences indicated variations of, respectively, </=0.05-0.06mm and </=+/-1.9-2.3%. There have been few evaluations of normal within-subject variations in cortical thickness. The present results suggest that within-subject variability in global mean cortical thickness can be low over test-retest intervals of minutes-weeks, and that longitudinal scans can establish useful baseline estimates of variability from which to assess changes due to injury, disease, or other experiences.



Prenatal development of the receptive fields of individual trigeminal ganglion cells in the rat

N. L. Chiaia, W. R. Bauer and R. W. Rhoades 
Department of Anatomy, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo 43699.

1. Extracellular single-unit recording and receptive-field mapping techniques were used to evaluate the response characteristics of trigeminal (V) ganglion cells in unanesthetized, decerebrate, fetal rats between the ages of embryonic (E-) day 15 and E-20 (E-0 is the day of conception).

2. The receptive-field properties of the cells (n = 282) recorded at all of these ages except E-15 were remarkably similar; V primary afferents were generally silent in the absence of peripheral stimulation (94.3%) and gave rapidly adapting responses to innocuous tactile stimuli (97.5%). Rapid response decrements to repeated stimuli were observed in 9 of the 14 cells (64%) tested.

3. None of the cells recorded were activated by either heat or cold. No attempt was made to evaluate responses to noxious mechanical stimuli.

4. Particular attention was paid to neurons whose receptive fields involved mystacial vibrissae follicles. At all ages, neurons were recorded that responded to indentation of the skin at the base of the vibrissae, but vibrissa deflection was not an adequate stimulus for any of the cells tested. At all ages, nearly all (89.0%) of the 127 cells with vibrissa-related receptive fields responded to indentation of one and only one follicle.

5. These results indicate that the response properties (e.g., adaptation characteristics, ability to respond to repeated stimuli) of V primary afferents in fetal rats differ substantially from those of V ganglion cells in adult animals, but that the receptive-field size for these neurons in prenatal rats is, with very rare exceptions, adult-like from the earliest age at which they can be recorded.

6. These results, when considered together with the results of previous retrograde tracing experiments in fetal animals, suggest that the initial projections of V primary afferents to their peripheral targets may be quite accurate.


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